Crop circles have been around for centuries. The subject is noted in the Dead Sea scrolls suggesting that formations go back thousands of years.
The mowing devil case. Hertfordshire, England 1678
The illustration provides further clues, depicting either oval or (allowing for foreshortening) circular rings in which the oat stems are laid neatly parallel to one another, with their heads away from the centre, and apparently inclining towards an anti-clockwise swirl.
This artifact was subsequently reproduced in 1898, in a piece by Lewis Evans called Witchcraft in Hertfordshire, which featured in the book Bygone Hertfordshire edited by William Andrews. (It was later also included in one of a series of pamphlets by the East Herts Archaeological Society, subsequently issued as a book entitled Hertfordshire Folklore by William Blyth Gerish.)
In the Lewis Evans piece, the author presents the original woodcut, and recounts the accompanying story in more modern prose, with his own embellishments. Some of these extrapolations appear to have been deduced from the drawing itself, and it is particularly interesting to see how he interpreted the imagery without the lens of knowledge of the crop circle phenomenon. Evans comments as follows:
The inquisitive farmer no sooner arrived at the place where his oats grew, but to his admiration he found the crop was cut down ready to his hands, and as if the Devil had a mind to shew his dexterity in the art of husbandry, and scorned to mow them after the usual manner, he cut them in round circles, and placed every straw with that exactness that it would have taken up above an age for any man to perform what he did in that one night.
Other historical case studies and the image can be found here oldcropcircles.weebly.com/uk
There have been many hoaxes that use foot boards to trample crops. Many of these hoaxes have produced patterns in crop fields with amazing accuracy all over the world. Some consider it a form of Art.
However, when investigators have completed analysis on the most sophisticated crop circles the traditional board tramping technique seems to have not been used.
In the 1990’s Biophysicists discovered plants from crop circles had elongated and pliable plant nodes that allowed rigid plant stems to be bent without breaking.
Investigators suggest that these patterns produced in crop fields were made as a result of intense heat. Electromagnetic energy is the likely culprit.
Eye witnesses have noted that elaborate patterns produced directly in the view as a result of a small bright light hovering over the crops. Crop circles have appeared in all sorts of crops even silver beat and rice paddy fields.
The elaborate patterns in canola crops are reported as the most extraordinary due to the fact that canola has a consistency similar to celery. If it is bent it snaps yet crops circles have been formed in canola fields with the plants bent at an impossible 90 degrees within an inch above the ground.
There is a suggestion that fractal patterns on most crop circles are a way of communicating using mathematics as the preferred choice of communications for extra-terrestrial beings.
There have been over 12,000 crop circles created around the world.
One of the most famous reported circles was an elaborate pattern which appeared in farmland next to the Chilbolton radio telescope and was allegedly a reply to a message that was sent to Space in the 1974.
In 1974 Carl Sagan and Dr Frank Drake sent an interstellar message into space using binary code carrying basic information about humanity and Earth. It was aimed at the M13 a globular star cluster and sent from the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico on 16 November 1974.
The M13 star cluster is some 25,000 light years away. The signal sent was a million times stronger than a typical TV transmission.
The message sent consisted of 1,679 binary digits. If you decode the binary digits the message was split into seven parts.
The numbers 1-10
The atomic numbers of the element’s hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygen and phosphorous
The details of human DNA
A graphic representation of a human
A graphic representation of our solar system and the earths position inside the solar system
A graphic representation of the Arecibo telescope that sent the message.
The theory was that it would take almost 25,000 years to reach its destination and presumably a similar period of time to receive a response.
In 2001 it was reported that a response had been received to the message sent out 27 years previously. In a crop field in the UK near to the Chilbolton telescope a near replica of the Arecibo message appeared.
The message received was similar in format to the message sent with a few key changes. The DNA structure of the reported sender had silicon instead of carbon in its construction.
The graphic representation of the alien suggested that it was somewhat smaller-than a-human around 3ft 4 inches.
The size of the alien population appeared to be significantly greater than Earths at the time the response was received.
The visual representation of the solar system had changed in the response. The sun of the sender’s message was smaller. Three planets were highlighted suggesting to some that the race lived on three planets.
The diameter of the device sending the message had changed suggesting it had a far greater diameter than the telescope at Arecibo.
James Deardoff a former Senior Scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder Colorado attempted to calculate the Arecibo response to be less than two chances in 10 billion to be a hoax.